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兩公約

 

蔡沛倫

英國諾丁漢大學法學院博士生

「兩公約」指公民與政治權利國際公約(International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR)及經濟社會文化權利國際公約(International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, ICESCR),兩公約皆屬聯合國核心國際人權條約,並與世界人權宣言合稱國際人權憲章。[1]兩公約保護之權利種類雖不相同,但皆於第一條肯認人民之自決權。為監督公約的執行,ICCPR成立了「人權事務委員會」,其主要功能包括審查締約國定期繳交之國家報告及做成解釋公約規定之「一般性意見」。[2]ICESCR之執行本由聯合國經濟暨社會理事會監督, 1985年始設立專責監督之條約機構:經濟、社會和文化權利委員會。ICCPR另有兩項已生效之任擇議定書,而ICESCR之任擇議定書目前仍未生效。[3]



[1] 丘宏達,現代國際法,臺北市,三民,二○○六年,頁456。United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNOHCHR), Fact Sheet No.2 (Rev.1): The International Bill of Human Rights, http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet2Rev.1en.pdf (last visited May 20, 2012).

[2] Markus Schmidt, United Nations, in International Human Rights Law 406-09 (Daniel Moeckli et al. eds, 2010). UNOHCHR, Fact Sheet No.30: The United Nations Human Rights Treaty System: An Introduction to the Core Human Rights Treaties and the Treaty Bodies, http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/
FactSheet30en.pdf (last visited May 20, 2012).

[3] United Nations Treaty Collection, Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-3-a&chapter=4&lang=en (last visited May 20, 2012).

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