Home 時事彙整 2012.10 國際法相關時事彙整

2012.10 國際法相關時事彙整

由王莉宸、王芊茵、吳逸儒
宋高祖、凌汶婷、張芷綺
張倍銓、黃馨雯、董奕君
蔣瑩、戴士捷、簡宏熠
共同整理

I.綜合整理

2012.10.4
日本擬10月內單獨向國際法院起訴獨島問題
日本政府消息人士3日就竹島(韓國稱獨島)主權問題透露稱,政府已就本月內向國際法院單獨提起訴訟事宜進入了最後協調階段。由於韓方不會應訴,因此預計不會進入實際審理程式。日本希望借此向國際社會宣傳自身對竹島主權的主張。
http://newspaper.jfdaily.com/xwwb/html/2012-10/04/content_893920.htm

2012.10.5
Radical Islamist Abu Hamza al-Masri extradited to U.S.
Extremist Islamic cleric Abu Hamza al-Masri and four other men departed England on Friday night destined for the United States after the High Court in London ended a years-long legal battle by ruling the men could be extradited “immediately.” The charges against al-Masri include conspiracy of a kidnapping of 16 Westerners in Yemen, and conspiring to establish an Islamic jihad training camp in rural Oregon.http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/05/world/europe/uk-abu-hamza-extradition/index.html

2012.10.6
威尼斯數千人將集會要求從義大利獨立出去
主張威尼斯獨立的政治運動領導人呼籲民眾6日在市中心舉行集會,要求威尼斯從義大利獨立出來。主張獨立的“獨立威尼斯”組織領導人說,預計有數千人將會參加此次集會。
http://world.huanqiu.com/exclusive/2012-10/3166820.html

2012.10.13
UN adopts resolution on northern Mali
The UN Security Council has adopted a resolution paving the way for military intervention in Mali to retake the north from Islamist extremists. Those Islamist militias are imposing strict Sharia law despite opposition from the local Muslim population. And they also destroyed ancient shrines in the historical city of Timbuktu. The UN has warned that the destruction of the shrines could amount to war crimes and the International Criminal Court has launched a preliminary inquiry into alleged atrocities.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19933979

2012.10.15
EU imposes new sanctions on Iran
EU member states have announced a new package of sanctions against Iran over its controversial nuclear programme.http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19947507

2012.10.15
Scotland To Vote On Independence From U.K.
Scotland has won the right to hold a referendum on independence from the United Kingdom. Scotland’s leader signed an agreement with Britain’s prime minister, finalizing a vote in 2014.
http://www.npr.org/2012/10/15/162963599/scotland-to-vote-on-independence-from-u-k

2012.10.16
Radovan Karadzic denies Bosnia war crimes
Being charged for using mortar to attack civilian Serb in the siege of Sarsjevo, former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic has said he should be rewarded for “reducing suffering”, not accused of carrying out war crimes.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-19952899

2012.10.17
Suicide attack on army base wounds dozens of Afghan soldiers
A suicide bomber rammed an explosives-laden truck into the wall of a joint NATO-Afghan army base Wednesday, wounding 45 Afghan soldiers, officials said.
http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/17/world/asia/afghanistan-attack/index.html?hpt=wo_c2

2012.10.18
Rwanda voted onto UN Security Council
Rwanda has been elected to sit on the United Nations Security Council for the next two years.http://www.bbc.com/news/world-19998195

2012.10.19
日俄舉行副外長級磋商 同意就島爭展開實質談判
日俄兩國政府19日在東京舉行副外長級磋商,同意近期就北方領土(俄稱南千島群島)問題展開實質性談判,以尋求雙方都能接受的解決辦法。雙方就承認《日蘇共同宣言》有效性的2001年日俄聲明的重要性取得了一致。《日蘇共同宣言》規定北方四島中的齒舞、色丹兩島將歸還日本。雙方還就是否起草涉及領土問題的協定檔以供野田訪俄時發表交換了看法,但未得出結論。
http://www.chinanews.com/gj/2012/10-19/4262641.shtml

2012.10.22
Terror trial begins in Britain
Irfan Naseer, Irfan Khalid and Ashik Ali were arrested in September 2011 in what authorities called a major operation. Naseer and Khalid are also accused of traveling to Pakistan for terrorist training, and recording martyrdom videos there.
來源:CNN News

2012.10.22
官員遇害 黎巴嫩境內不安升高
黎巴嫩情報首長在貝魯特(Beirut)遭汽車炸彈攻擊遇害,可能成為自前總理哈里里(Rafik al-Hariri)於2005年遭暗殺後,在黎巴嫩引發最嚴重動亂的攻擊事件。尚不明朗的情況讓恐懼逐漸滲入這個於1975年至1990曾發生內戰的國家,目前仍不清楚這起攻擊是否僅為報復,還是大馬士革當局和其盟友發起的暴力運動的開端。許多黎巴嫩人懷疑這是敘利亞企圖將境內衝突擴散至邊界以外。
來源:Yahoo! 奇摩新聞

2012.10.22
韓政府近期擬向聯合國提交東海大陸架劃界案
韓國政府將于近期向聯合國提交沖繩海槽附近海域大陸架劃界案,闡明韓方立場。韓國政府的立場是,起於朝鮮半島的大陸架是自然延伸出去的,而且一直延展到沖繩海槽。中國也認為起于中韓兩國的大陸架延伸至沖繩海槽,中韓雙方只在大陸架劃界問題上存在意見分歧。而日本則認為,韓國的主張有損於日本海洋主權。
http://world.huanqiu.com/exclusive/2012-10/3206148.html

2012.10.22
European Union Protests Google’s New Privacy Policy
The European Union says a change in Google’s privacy policy is a breach of European privacy law.
來源:NPR

2012.10.25
亞桑傑健康惡化 厄欲和英商議
厄瓜多要求與英國開會,討論維基解密創辦人亞桑傑健康惡化問題。厄瓜多外長巴蒂諾(Ricardo Patino)說他想和英國外相赫格(William Hague)討論亞桑傑健康惡化的問題。亞桑傑在大使館尋求庇護超過4個月。厄瓜多說,已要求英國政府書面保證不會在亞桑傑住院期間逮人。巴蒂諾稍早接受電台專訪表示:「我們希望英國政府捍衛、尊重人權和國際法。」
來源:Yahoo! 奇摩新聞

2012.10.26
緬西種族衝突 短期難有寧日
緬甸西北若開邦種族衝突再度升溫。若開邦(Arakan)佛教徒與洛興雅(Rohingya)穆斯林自6月初所發生的衝突造成約90人死亡、10萬人流離失所。緬甸鎖國多年,去年展開改革,緬西長年來的宗教種族衝突才能引起國際高度關注,洛興雅人備受歧視、無國籍的處境更是人權團體的關注焦點。當局似乎默許佛僧、學生反洛興雅穆斯林的情緒高漲,加上民主派噤聲,緬西衝突短期內恐怕難有寧日。
http://www.cna.com.tw/News/aOPL/201210260375.aspx

II.分類新聞

1.國際經貿

2012.10.02
貿易談判垂危 WTO歸咎美陸
WTO秘書長拉米表示,杜哈回合談判陷入僵局,其中最主要的原因是美中兩國在美國與大陸對於已開發國家和開發中國家該削減多少工業關稅,意見分歧,致使談判陷入僵局。但拉米同時也表示說,世貿成員仍可能在某些領域取得進展,例如能消除更多高科技貿易關稅的資訊科技協定(ITA),可能會有新的進展進而擴大零關稅的適用範圍。
http://news.rti.org.tw/index_newsContent.aspx?nid=381355&id=5&id2=2

2012.10.10
美國終裁中國晶體矽光伏電池存在傾銷及補貼行為
美國商務部10日作出終裁,認定中國向美國出口的晶體矽光伏電池及組件存在傾銷(18.32%至249.96%)和補貼(14.78%至15.97%不等)行為,這基本為美國針對此類產品徵收反傾銷和反補貼關稅(“雙反”)掃清了道路。
http://news.163.com/12/1011/07/8DH427IJ00014JB5.html

2012.10.11
WTO就加拿大綠能計畫案初步裁定歐盟與日本勝訴   
針對加拿大在安大略省所實施綠能電力收購(feed-in tariff, FIT)計畫一案,WTO 認定該計畫對於使用進口再生能源發電設備與零件之業者構成了歧視待遇,違反GATT第三條第四項的規定,且不符合政府採購協定的例外規定,故判決加拿大敗訴。
http://www.wtocenter.org.tw/SmartKMS/do/www/readDoc?document_id=125652

2012.10.12
歐盟指控美國未停止對波音提供非法補貼 要求WTO進行調查
美國剛在上個月表示已經遵從WTO的裁決,停止向波音公司提供補貼,但歐盟對此提出質疑,歐盟在10月11日指出美國無視於WTO的裁決,仍然持續向波音公司提供補貼,對此,歐盟要求世界貿易組織對美國展開調查。
http://news.cnyes.com/Content/20121012/KFNB7C5HVMI7M.shtml

2012.10.15
Mexico files dispute against China on alleged subsidies to clothing and textile products
Mexico notified the WTO Secretariat on 15 October 2012 of a request for consultations with China concerning several measures allegedly taken by China to support the production and exports of clothing and textile products.http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news12_e/ds451rfc_15oct12_e.htm

2012.10.16
墨西哥向世貿投訴中國非法補貼服裝紡織業
世界貿易組織(WTO)15日稱,墨西哥已向世貿投訴中國非正當補貼本國服裝和紡織公司。世貿組織在聲明中說,墨西哥指控中國通過豁免所得稅、增值稅和地方稅來實際補貼中國服裝和紡織公司。其他違反世貿規定的行為包括:政府機構付款以及在貸款、土地權利和電力價格方面提供優惠。
http://world.huanqiu.com/exclusive/2012-10/3191208.html

2012.10.17
Hearings for Burkina Faso-Niger border case end at UN International Court of Justice
The West African countries of Burkina Faso and Niger today completed the presentation of their respective cases in a border dispute to the United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ), which is expected to issue its judgment within four to six months.
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=43316&Cr=icj&Cr1=

2012.10,18
Ex-Serbian Leader Charged With Genocide
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, based in the Netherlands, charged Radovan Karadzic, the ex-leader of the Serbs in the Republic of Bosnia, with genocide and crimes against humanity. Radovan Karadzic cut an especially ruthless figure during the war among Serbs, Croats and Muslims in the 1990s.
http://www.npr.org/2012/10/18/163188235/ex-serbian-leader-charged-with-genocide

2012.10.18
Appellate Body issues report on China’s duties on steel products from the US
the WTO Appellate Body issued its report in the case “China – Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Duties on Grain Oriented Flat-Rolled Electrical Steel from the United States” (DS414).
http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news12_e/414abr_e.htm

2012.10.23
Panels set up on China’s duties on US automobiles and on US compliance in Boeing dispute
The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), on 23 October 2012, established a panel to examine a complaint by the United States against China’s anti-dumping and countervailing duties on US automobiles. In the Boeing dispute, it established a panel, at the request of the European Union, to examine whether the US had complied with DSB recommendations, and referred to arbitration a request by the EU to take countermeasures for $12 billion against the US.
http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news12_e/dsb_23oct12_e.htm

2012.10.24
美中鋼鐵大戰 WTO裁定美國勝訴
WTO 上訴機構於2012年10月18日裁定駁回中國的上訴,維持小組判決,認為中國對美國特殊鋼材課徵反補貼及反傾銷稅違反WTO的規定,不同意中國所主張的小組判決錯誤,中國須限期改善違反協定的措施。
http://tw.news.yahoo.com/美中鋼鐵大戰-wto裁定美國勝訴-203022556.html

2012.10.25
WTO成立專家組正式審理中美汽車糾紛
於10月23日,WTO正式成立專家小組專門審查中美之間針對汽車交易所生之貿易糾紛,美國認為中國對由美國所進口的汽車開展的「雙反」調查存在「成序和實質上的缺陷」,違反了相關世貿規則,在請求雙方諮商失敗後,請求世界貿易組織組成專家小組審理此案。
http://news.sina.com.tw/article/20121025/8134602.html

2012.10.25
歐盟將加速啟動與美、日進行FTA談判
歐盟各國領袖於今(2012)年10月19日結束為期兩天的高峰會後,作成啟動與日本進行自由貿易協定(Free Trade Agreement, FTA)談判之決定,並規劃歐盟將在2013年開始與美國展開FTA談判。
http://www.wtocenter.org.tw/SmartKMS/do/www/readDoc?document_id=126047

2.國際人權

2012.10.5
Kenyan victims of colonial torture win right to sue UK
Three Kenyans tortured during a colonial-era rebellion can sue the United Kingdom for compensation, a London high court ruled Friday, potentially opening floodgates of abuse claims dating to the British Empire.
http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/05/world/europe/uk-kenya-colonial-case/index.html

2012.10.12
國際女孩日UN敲警鐘 童婚驟增女權堪憂
聯合國人口基金會(UNFPA)在首屆「國際女孩日」(International Dayof the Girl Child)的最新報告中提出警告,未滿18歲女孩嫁作人婦的人數,將在未來20年急遽增加。調查顯示,儘管試圖遏止這項行為,但這類婚姻過去10年在開發中國家仍頗為普遍。UNFPA執行主任表示,童婚不僅嚴重違反人權,同時剝奪女孩受教、健康與展望未來的權利。少女結婚會導致懷孕與生產併發症,這是發展中國家15至19歲女孩的主要死因。
http://news.rti.org.tw/index_newsContent.aspx?nid=383162

2012.10.12
Argentinian ‘sex slave’ allowed abortion after ruling
In the predominantly Catholic country, abortion is illegal except in rape cases or to protect a woman’s health. A judge had blocked the operation, saying there was no proof that the woman had been raped. The Supreme Court ruling on Thursday night, overturning a decision by a judge on Tuesday, was celebrated by pro-abortion campaigners.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-19931437

2012.10.16
Malala Yousafzai will ‘inspire a new generation’
Pakistan schoolgirl Malala Yousafzai, who was shot by a Taliban gunman for campaigning for girls’ education is an inspiration to other young Muslim girls, a UK human rights group has said.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-birmingham-19966357

2012.10.19

UK’s recent extradition cases expose society’s racism

Violence isn’t always physical — and UK Home Secretary Theresa May’s recent announcements on all things extradition fell one after another as devastating blows to an already beaten and broken Muslim community. The extraditions of five Muslim men to the United States on October 5 followed by the blocking of computer hacker Gary McKinnon’s extradition this week has made the Muslim communities of the UK wake up to a glaring reality many tried hard to avoid.
http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/19/opinion/uk-extradition-racism/index.html?iref=allsearch

2012.10.20
Israeli navy stops ship bound for Gaza
The Israeli navy boarded a ship and halted an attempt to break the sea blockade of Gaza on Saturday. Forces stormed the ship and took the passengers into custody. Passengers were hoping to call attention to human rights in the Palestinian territory, which has been under an Israeli blockade since 2007.
http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/20/world/meast/gaza-ship/index.html?iref=allsearch

2012.10.20
Afghanistan: following deadly blast, UN mission calls on Taliban to halt use of improvised explosive devices
Following the deaths of at least 18 women, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) today called on the Taliban leadership to publicly reiterate a ban on landmine-like improvised explosive device (IEDs) and to stop their use.
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=43341&Cr=Afghan&Cr1=#.UIrn2cWCm7w

2012/10/24
聯合國:希臘種族歧視攻擊嚴重
UNHCR表示,人權與移民者團體今年1月到9月間,接獲87起種族歧視攻擊案件,並稱這樣的現象「非常令人憂心」。而且受害者可能因為太害怕不敢報案、或被打發走,實際人數可能更多。
UNHCR在報告中說,受害者說他們因為害怕遭攻擊,雅典市內多個區域,他們已經不敢去了。很明顯地,暴力種族歧視攻擊的加害人,沒有一個被判刑。
http://news.rti.org.tw/index_newsContent.aspx?nid=385351

2012/10/24
東盟秘書長指責艾伯特「遣返難民船」方案
東南亞國家聯盟(ASEAN,簡稱東盟)秘書長不贊同澳洲聯盟黨關於遣返難民船的方案,指責這項方案會「適得其反」。他向媒體表示:「將某種決定強加給鄰國,可能會失去與鄰國商討很多其它議題的機會。我認為這不值得。」比素萬表示只有找出一個區域性的解決辦法,才能應對走私人販子所帶來的挑戰。
來源:Epoch Times

2012.10.24
Internal displacement remains one of world’s biggest human rights challenges – UN expert
Internal displacement remains one of the world’s most significant human rights and humanitarian challenges, as millions of people continue to be internally displaced every year by conflict, violence, human rights violations, disasters and development projects, a United Nations independent expert said today.
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=43368&Cr=idps&Cr1=#.UImAcMU3v9U

2012.10.24
Colombia’s military faces challenges over peace talks
With long-awaited peace talks under way between the Colombian government and Farc rebels in Oslo, one key question is how to incorporate the guerrillas back into civilian life.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-19880964

2012.10.24
Top UN envoy calls for investigation into attacks against two Somali journalists
The United Nations top political official in Somalia today called for an investigation into the attacks that targeted two journalists in the Horn of Africa country over the past week, stressing that the perpetrators must be brought to justice.
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=43363&Cr=Somalia&Cr1=#.UIrkGcWCm7w

2012.10.26
箝制言論自由 玻利維亞禁批評總統
據CNN報導,玻利維亞副總統林內瓦近日警告,網路上有關於批評總統莫拉萊斯的任何批評,他都會詳加記錄,執政黨更傳言將修法管控社群媒體。對此,專家建議,政府應將網路視為親近民眾的契機,而不是一種威脅。
來源:Yahoo! 奇摩新聞網 

3. 武裝衝突

III. 專題新聞

1.釣魚台

2012.10.20
東海和平倡議 美中日學者肯定
釣魚台學術研討會今天舉行,包括日本、中國大陸及美國學者都認為,總統馬英九提出的「東海和平倡議」值得重視及思考。美國南加州大學美中學院院長杜克雷(Clayton Dube)則說,他非常仰慕馬總統,並贊成馬總統的主張。他認為,馬總統把台灣與大陸共同關切的事拿到檯面上來談,這就是擱置爭議。
http://tw.news.yahoo.com/東海和平倡議-美中日學者肯定-112209664.html

2012.10.26
陸船疑釣島海域臨檢 日警告
1艘中國漁政船疑似在日本專屬經濟海域登上大陸漁船臨檢,遭日本海上保安廳人員警告不得行使漁業管轄權。日本海保廳人員認為,地點是在日本專屬經濟海域,於是以無線通訊器對中國漁政船提出警告表示,「若是在行使漁業管轄權,日本不允許」。對此,中國大陸漁政202號回應表示,地點是中國的專屬海域,要日船立刻離開。另有4艘中國海監船今天在釣魚台海域航行。
http://www.cna.com.tw/News/aOPL/201210260305.aspx

2012.10.26
陸日交惡 海上避衝突機制停擺
日本防衛大臣森本敏今天在例行記者會上表示,受到日本將釣魚台列嶼國有化影響,日本與中國防衛當局為了防止東海偶發衝突的「海上聯絡機制」協商已中斷。日本「共同通信社」報導,森本今天表示,自從日本將釣魚台列嶼國有化後,日本與中國防衛當局有關海上聯絡機制的磋商已停擺。原本期待今年內啟動這項機制,但恐已窒礙難行。
http://www.cna.com.tw/News/aOPL/201210260265.aspx
 

2.敘利亞內亂

2012.10.9
敘利亞政府軍攻入霍姆斯市反對派控制地區
敘利亞反對派稱,敘政府軍8日攻入反對派控制的霍姆斯市卡利迪亞區,這是數月來政府軍首次攻入該區。聯合國統計顯示,自2011年3月敘利亞危機爆發以來,約2萬人在各種暴力衝突中死亡,而敘利亞人權觀察組織稱,死亡人數已達3萬人,其中包括7000多名軍人和安全人員。
http://news.sina.com.cn/w/2012-10-09/075225319343.shtml

2012.10.14
Syria bans Turkey civilian flights over its territory
This comes just days after Turkey intercepted a Syrian-bound plane, claiming it carried Russian-made munitions for the Syrian army. Turkish civilian planes are no longer allowed to fly over Syria, Damascus has said, amid growing tensions between the two neighbouring countries.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19938221

2012.10.18
Syria crisis: 28,000 disappeared, say rights groups
Human rights groups working in Syria say at least 28,000 people have disappeared after being abducted by soldiers or militia. They say they have the names of 18,000 people missing since anti-government protests began 18 months ago and know of another 10,000 cases.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19986806

2012.10.22
Syria peacekeeping contingency plan mulled at UN
The UN is making contingency plans for a peacekeeping force in Syria in the event of a ceasefire there.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20034422

2012.10.24
聯合國稱敘利亞衝突已致35萬人成為難民
聯合國難民署當天表示,黎巴嫩成為繼土耳其和約旦之後,第三個接收了超過10萬難民的敘利亞鄰國。與此同時,敘利亞衝突已經導致35萬人成為難民。另外,聯合國稱,敘利亞國內還有成千上萬的人“逃了出來”,但沒有尋求國際組織的幫助。
http://world.huanqiu.com/exclusive/2012-10/3210201.html

2012.10.25
Syrian Government Agrees To Temporary Cease-Fire
The Syrian government has announced it will cease military operations for four days beginning tomorrow, to mark the beginning of Eid al-Adha. The reaction from Syria’s rebel forces has been mixed, with some commanders saying they will honor the truce but others insisting they won’t. As the truce was announced, heavy fighting continued in several areas, especially in Syria’s largest city, Aleppo.
http://www.npr.org/2012/10/25/163653931/syrian-government-agrees-to-temporary-cease-fire

2012.10.26
聯合國做好人道救援準備 擬敘停火期運物資入境
聯合國難民署25日發佈媒體通報稱,敘利亞衝突各方預計將在從26日至29日的穆斯林傳統節日“宰牲節”期間停止軍事行動。該機構及其合作夥伴現已做好準備,打算將數百噸緊急救援物資趁機運送到之前因衝突而無法進入的地區,以緩解當地成千上萬個家庭的迫切人道主義需求。
http://www.chinanews.com/gj/2012/10-26/4277834.shtml

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